1. Dima Qato, et al. “Use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008; 300(24): 2867–2878.
2. Russell, Lesley M. Reducing Disparities in Life Expectancy: What Factors Matter? A background paper prepared for the workshop on Reducing Disparities in Life Expectancy held by the Roundtable on the Promotion of Health Equity and the Elimination of Health Disparities of the Institute of Medicine, February 2011.
3. Chen. J. An original discovery: selenium deficiency and Keshan disease (an endemic heart disease). Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012;21(3):320-6.
4. Eric D. Mintz, MD and Richard L. Guerrant, MD. A lion in our village—the unconscionable tragedy of cholera in Africa. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009; 360(11): 1060–1063.
5. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994).
6. J. Lazarou, B. Pomeranz, and P. Corey. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998; 279: 1200–1205.
7. McLaughlin, Jerry. Paw paw and cancer: annonaceous acetogenins from discovery to commercial products. Journal of Natural Products. 2008 Jul;71(7):1311-21. 2008 Jul 4.
8. Barbara Starfield. Is US Health Really The Best In The World? Journal of the American Medical Association. July 26, 2000. Vol 284. No. 4.
9. Gardner, Harris. Study Finds Supplements Contain Contaminants. New York Times. May 25, 2010, New York Times. May 25, 2010
10. W. Watt Gibbs. “Roots of cancer.” Scientific American. July 2003.
11. “Preventing skin cancer.” Centers for Disease Control. October 17, 2003. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5215a1.htm.
13. B. Jackson “Cosmetic considerations and nonlaser cosmetic procedures in ethnic skin.” Dermatologic Clinics. 2003; 21(4): 703–712.
14. Lester Packer, Eric Witt, and Hans Jurgen Tritschler. “Alpha lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1995; 19(2): 227–250.
15. Amy Ellis Nutt. “The end of aging.” Readers Digest. November 2003, 70; Anna Bilska and Lidia Wlodek. “Lipoic Acid—The drug of the future?” Pharmacological Reports. 2005; 57: 570–577; The Cleveland Clinic. my.clevelandclinic.org/healthy_living/skin_care/hic_understanding_the_ingredients_in_skin_care_products.aspx.
16. Lester Packer, Eric Witt, and Hans Jurgen Tritschler. “Alpha lipoic acid as a bi-ological antioxidant.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1995; 19(2): 227–250.
17. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/
18. Sirakarnt Dhitavat, et al. “Acetyl-l-carnitine protects against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity: roles of oxidative buffering and ATP levels.” Neurochemical Research. 2002; 27(6).
19. Helen White. “Acetyl-l-carnitine as a precursor of acetylcholine.” Neurochemical Research. 1990; 15(6).
20. Vincent W. Delagarza. “Pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.” American Family Physician. October 1, 2003.
21. Lorenz, Todd, Ph. D, A Review of Astaxanthin as a Carotenoid and Vitamin Source for Sea Bream. Found at http://www.ruscom.com/cyan/web02/pdfs/naturose/axbul52.pdf
22. La Grange L, Wang M, Watkins R, et al. Protective effects of the flavonoid mixture, silymarin, on fetal rat brain and liver. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;65:53-61.
23. Michelle Chen. “Discovery of toxins in newborn blood causes alarm, spurs activism.” New Standard. July 21, 2005. www.ewg.org/node/17733.
24. Environmental Working Group. “A national assessment of tap water quality.” (More than 140 contaminants with no enforceable safety limits found in the na- tion’s drinking water.) December 20, 2005. http://www.ewg.org/agmag/2005/12/national-tap-water-quality-database
25. Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/.
26. Environmental Working Group. “Triclosan in your home.” 2009. http://www.ewg.org/research/pesticide-soap-toothpaste-and-breast-milk-it-kid-safe/triclosan-your-home.
27. Cane Rogers. Regulatory Status of Triclosan and Triclocarban in Nonpre- scription Products. Pacific Southwest Organic Residuals Symposium University of California, Davis. October 1, 2008.
28. Antonia M. Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Lee-Yang Wong, John A. Reidy, and Larry L. Needham. “Urinary concentrations of triclosan in the U.S. population: 2003–2004.” Environmental Health Perspectives. April 23, 2008.
29. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards.
30. Sara Shahriari. “Columbia searching for answers to high trihalomethanes in water.” Columbia Missourian. July 15, 2008. http://www.columbiamissourian.com/news/local/columbia-searching-for-answers-to-high-trihalomethanes-in-water/article_e39d08c0-0528-55e7-b93b-28c90eb7c342.html.
31. Sean Gray, et al. “Farm runoff, chlorination by-products, and human health.” Environmental Working Group. 2002.
32. Tom Avril. “Philadelphia’s water puts pregnant women at risk, study says.” Philadelphia Inquirer. January 9, 2002.
33. Juliet Eilperin. “EPA unlikely to limit perchlorate in tap water.” Washington Post. September 22, 2008, A09.
35. Linda Marsa. “Filtering out the mystery surrounding liver damage.” Los Angeles Times. September 5, 2005.
36. Anne Larson, et al. “Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study.” Hepatology. 2005; 2(6).
38. A. Pares, et al. “Effects of silymarin in alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized, and multicenter trial.” Journal of Hepatology. 1998; 28(4): 615–621.
39. Jhy-Wen Wu, Lie-Chwen Lin and Tung-Hu Tsai. “Drug–drug interactions of silymarin on the perspective of pharmacokinetics.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009; 121(2): 185–193. La 40. Grange L, Wang M, Watkins R, et al. Protective effects of the flavonoid mixture, silymarin, on fetal rat brain and liver. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;65:53-61.
41. G. Buzzelli, S. Moscarella, and A. Giusti, et al. “A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybinphosphatidylcholine complex (IdB1016) in chronic active hepatitis.” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy, and Toxicology. 1993; 31(9): 456–460; Ladas E.J., Kelly K.M. “Milk thistle: is there a role for its use as an adjunct therapy in patients with cancer?” Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine. 2003; 9(3): 411–416.
42. Lawrence, B. Jacobs, C. Dennehy, et al. “Report on milk thistle: effects on liver disease and cirrhosis and clinical adverse effects.” Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 21 (Contract 290-97-0012 to the San Antonio Evidence-based Practice Center, based at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and The Veterans Evidence-based Research, Dissemination, and Implementation Center, a Veterans Affairs Services Research and Development Center of Excellence). AHRQ Publication No. 01-E025. Rockville, Maryland: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2000.
43. M.I. Lucena, R.J. Andrade, and J.P. de la Cruz, et al. “Effects of silymarin MZ-80 on oxidative stress in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.” (Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.) International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2002; 40(1): 2–8.
44. Madisch, H. Melderis, and G. Mayr, et al. “A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo con- trolled comparative study.” Z Gastroenterol. 2001; 39(7): 511–517. A. Melhelm, M. Stern, and O. Shibolet, et al. “Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection via antioxidants: results of a phase I clinical trial.” J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2005; 39(8): 737–42.
45. Pares, R. Planas, and M. Torres, et al. “Effects of silymarin in alcoholic pa- tients with cirrhosis of the liver: results of a controlled, double-blind, random- ized, and multicenter trial.” Journal of Hepatology . 1998; 28(4): 615–621. A. Rambaldi, B.P. Jacobs, and G. Iaquinto, et al. “Milk thistle for alcoholic and/ or hepatitis B or C liver diseases—a systematic cochrane hepato-biliary group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials.” American Journal of Gastroenterology . 2005; 100(11): 2583–91.
46. Rambaldi, B.P. Jacobs, and C. Gluud, et al. “Milk thistle for alcoholic and/ or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. October 17, 2007; (4):CD003620. Update of Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2005; (2): CD003620.
47. F.H. Schroder, M.J. Roobol, and E.R. Boeve, et al. “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in men with prostate cancer and rising PSA: effectiveness of a dietary supplement.” European Urology. 2005; 48(6): 922–30; discussion 930–1. A.K.
48. Tyagi, R.P. Singh, and C. Agarwal, et al. “Silibinin strongly synergizes hu- man prostate carcinoma DU145 cells to doxorubicin-induced growth inhibition, G2-M arrest, and apoptosis.” Clinical Cancer Research. 2002; 8(11): 3512–19.
49. “War on cancer needs ‘new direction,’ panel tells congress.” New York Times. September 30, 1994; “Cancer passes heart disease as top killer.” Associated Press. January 20, 2005.
50. C.M. Leontine Kremer, MD, PhD and Huib N. Caron, MD, PhD. “Anthracycline cardiotoxicity in children.” New England Journal of Medicine. 2004; 351(2): 120–121.
51. Featured on NBC News Today Show. www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/SABCS/7682.
52. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/therapy/tamoxifen.
53. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
54. C.M. Leontine Kremer, MD, PhD, and Huib N. Caron, MD, PhD. “Anthracycline cardiotoxicity in children.” New England Journal of Medicine. 2004; 351(2): 120–121.
55. Ellis Rehema. “Cancer docs profit from chemotherapy drugs.” NBC. September 21, 2006; Maartje J. Hooning, PhD, department of medical oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Jay Brooks, MD, chairman, hematology/oncology, Ochsner Health System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Journal of Clinical Oncology.
56. Amanda Gardner. “Younger breast cancer survivors risk disease in other breast.” Washington Post. October 15, 2008.
57. Jon Christensen. “Scientist at work: John Reed; running hot in pursuit of can- cer treatment.” New York Times. December 12, 2005.
58. John C. Reed, MD, PhD. Research Focus Burnham Institute of Medical Research. http://bccg.sanfordburnham.org/PDF/shak%20CPCCG%20outreach%20PPT%20April%2021st.pdf.
59. Annelyse Duvois, et al. “Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcum-in.” Cancer Letters. 2005; 223: 181–190.
60. Bryan Smith. “Indian gold.” Men’s Health. 2008.
61. Bryan Smith. “Best food for men nutrition awards.” Men’s Health. 2008.
62. 123. Jeremy James Johnson and Hasan Mukhtar. “Curcumin for chemoprevention of colon cancer.” Cancer Letters. 2007; 255(2): 170–181.
63. K.M. Dhandapani, V.B. Mahesh, and D.W. Brann. “Curcumin suppresses growth and chemoresistance of human glioblastoma cells via AP-1 and NFkappaB transcription factors.” Journal of Neurochemistry. 2007; 102(2): 522–38.
64. Matthew Miller, Shenglin Chen, Jeffrey Woodliff, and Sanjay Kansra. “Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone levels and secretion in pituitary tumor cells.” Endocrinololgy. 2008; 149 (8): 4158–67.
65. McLaughlin, Jerry. Paw Paw and Cancer: Annonaceous Acetogenins from Discovery to Commercial Products. 2008. Journal of Natural Products, 71:1311-132.
67. McLaughlin, Jerry. Lingling, Rogers. The Use of Biological Assays to Evaluate Botanicals, Drug Information Journal, pp. 513-524, 1998.
68. Veena Coothankandaswamy, Yang Liu, Shui-Chun Mao, J. Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Mika B. Jekabsons, Dale G. Nagle and Yu-Dong Zhou. The Alternative Medicine Pawpaw and Its Acetogenin Constituents Suppress Tumor Angiogenesis via the HIF-1/VEGF Pathway. 2010. Journal of Natural Products. 73:956–961.
70. “Sunshine might stop skin cancers,” BBC News, February 1, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4225195.stm.
71. Lawrence H. Kushi, ScD, Tim Byers, MD, MPH, Colleen Doyle, MS, RD, Elisa V. Bandera, MD, PhD, Marji McCullough, ScD, RD, Ted Gansler, MD, MBA, Kimberly S. Andrews, Michael J. Thun, MD, MS, and The American Cancer Society 2006 Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. “American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention.” A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2006; 56: 254–281.
72. C. Garland, F. Garland, and E. Gorham. “Could sunscreens increase melanoma risk?” American Journal of Public Health 82 1992; (4): 614–5.
73. Kessler, David. “The End of Overeating. Taking Control of the Insatiable American Appetite.” Rodale Books; 1 edition (April 28, 2009)
74. Roni Caryn Rabin. “Obese Teens as Likely as Smokers to Die Early, Study Finds.” New York Times. March 3, 2009.
75. Dr. David Kessler on 60 Minutes. 60 Minutes: The Flavorists; Addictive Flavors of the Artificial Flavor Industry Exposed
76. JESSE McKINLEY. Flavoring-Factory Illnesses Raise Inquiries. New York Times. May 6, 2007.
77. Bachmanov AA, Inoue M, Ji H, Murata Y, Tordoff MG, Beauchamp GK. Glutamate taste and appetite in laboratory mice: physiologic and genetic analyses. America Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009 Sep;90(3):756S-763S. 2009 Jul 1.
79. FAQ: Thyroid treatment. American Thyroid Association. Web site, June 6, 2012.
80. Daniell, Harry W. Risk Factors in Thyroid Replacement Treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1974;230(7):964.
81. Gaby, Alan R. “Treatment With Thyroid Hormone.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 1989;262(13):1774.
82. Hilts, Phillip, J. After 46 Years of Sales, Thyroid Drug Needs F.D.A. Approval. New York Times. July 31, 2001.
83. Dong, Betty. How medications affect thyroid function. Western Journal of Medicine. 2000 February; 172(2): 102–106.
84. Patrick, Lyn. Thyroid Disruption: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications in Human Health. Alternative Medicine Review Volume 14, Number 4 2009.
85. Newsweek March 26, 1990. PROZAC A BREAKTHROUGH DRUG FOR DEPRESSION. VOLUME CXV, NO. 13. Paperback – January 1, 1990.
86. Kirsch, Irving. 60 Minutes, Harvard psychologist interview. Aired Feb. 19, 2012.
87. Rabin, Roni Caryn. A Glut of Antidepressants. The New York Times. AUGUST 12, 2013.
88. Mukherjee, Siddhartha. Post-Prozac Nation. The Science and History of Treating Depression. The New York Times. April 19, 2012
89. Lenzer, Jeanne. FDA to review “missing” drug company documents. British Medical Journal. 2004; 330:7
90. Bass, Alison. Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and a Bestselling Antidepressant on Trial. Kindle Edition. Algonquin Books; 1 edition. June 17, 2008. Glenmullen, Joseph. Prozac Backlash Overcoming the Dangers of Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, and Other Antidepressants With Safe, Effective Alternatives. Simon & Schuster. April 17, 2001.
91. Boseley, Sarah. Four people dead is four too many. The Guardian. August 9, 2001.
92. Breggin, Peter. Judge Sentences Teenager In Prozac Murder Case — Release in 10 Months to Community Service. Huffington Post. November 8, 2011.
94. Brock, William H. (1993). The Norton History of Chemistry. New York: W. W. Norton. Jaffe, Bernard (1976). Crucibles: The Story of Chemistry from Ancient Alchemy to Nuclear Fission. New York: Dover.
95. Rif S. El-Mallakh, M.D.; Rona Jeannie Roberts. Lithiated Lemon-Lime Sodas. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;164:1662-1662.
96. Paulus, Jochen. Lithiums Healing Power. Scientific American. April 4, 2007.
97. Gershon, Samuel. Lithium: Discovered, Forgotten and Rediscovered. International Network for the History of Neuropsychopharmacology. Published online:
98. Breggin, Peter. Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients and their Families. Springer Publishing Company; 1 edition (July 19, 2012)
99. Miller AL. The methylation, neurotransmitter, and antioxidant connections between folate and depression. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008 Sep;13(3):216-26.
100. Breggin, Peter. Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients and their Families. Springer Publishing Company; 1 edition (July 19, 2012)
101. ADA Reports. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and Lifestyle for a Healthy Pregnancy Outcome. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. October 2002 Volume 102 Number 10.
102. Weil, Andrew. Supplements and Herbs. www.drweil.com
103. BASF Chemical Company. Human Nutrition Technical Information. 2010.
104. ADA Reports. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and Lifestyle for a Healthy Pregnancy Outcome. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. October 2002 Volume 102 Number 10.
105. Berry, Robert. et al. “Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Folic Acid in China.” New England Journal of Medicine. Volume 34 Number 20.
106. Scott D. Grosse. et al. “Reevaluating the Benefits of Folic Acid Fortification in the United States: Economic Analysis, Regulation, and Public Health.” American Journal of Public Health. 2005 November; 95(11): 1917–1922.
107. Gohagan JK, Prorok PC, Hayes RB, Kramer BS. “The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial of the National Cancer Institute: history, organization, and status.” Controlled Clinical Trials 2000;21:Suppl:251S-272S.
108. Marta Ebbing; Kaare Harald Bonaa; Ottar Nygard; Egil Arnesen; Per Magne Ueland; Jan Erik Nordrehaug; Knut Rasmussen; Inger Njolstad; Helga Refsum; Dennis W. Nilsen; Aage Tverdal; Klaus Meyer; Stein Emil Vollset. “Cancer Incidence and Mortality After Treatment With Folic Acid and Vitamin B12.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 2009; 302 (19): 2119-2126.
109. Bettina F. Drake; Graham A. Colditz. “Assessing Cancer Prevention Studies — A Matter of Time.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 2009; 302 (19): 2152-2153.
110. Lucock, Mark. Yates, Zoe. Folic acid — vitamin and panacea or genetic time bomb? Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 235-240 (March 2005). Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 235-240 (March 2005).
111. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Released: November 30, 2010
112. How JA, Hazewinkle HAW, Mol JA. Dietary vitamin D dependence of cat and dog due to inadequate cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 1994; 96:12-18.
113. Prummel MF1, Wiersinga WM, Lips P, Sanders GT, Sauerwein HP. The course of biochemical parameters of bone turnover during treatment with corticosteroids. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.1991 Feb;72(2):382-6.
114. John F. Aloia, Ruban Dhaliwal, Albert Shieh, Mageda Mikhail, Shahidul Islam And James K. Yeh. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, September 2013.
115. Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, Reid IR. “Calcium and vitamin D supplements and health outcomes: a reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) limited-access data set.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;94:1144-1149.
116. Bolland MJ, Avenell A, Baron JA, et al. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. British Medical Journal. 2010;341:c3691.
117. ANAHAD O’CONNOR. Taking Calcium May Pose Heart Risks. The New York Times. MAY 24, 2012.
118. Garnder, Amanda. Calcium supplements may boost heart attack risk. CNN Health. July 30, 2010.
119. Mannar, Venkat. Gallego, Erick Boy. Iron Fortification: Country Level Experiences and Lessons Learned. The Journal of Nutrition. April 1, 2002 vol. 132 no. 4.